Wednesday, November 15, 2017

News from the world of beekeeping

News from the world of beekeeping - Western Apicultural Society Journal 

5-CHLOROINDOLE ANTAGONIST for (AFB) P. LARVAE SPORE GERMINATION AND BACTERIAL PROLIFERATION. 
From (Entomology Today)  By Meredith Swett Walker

American foulbrood (AFB) is a bacterial disease afflicting honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies. The Paenibacillus larvae bacterium germinates in the gut of a honey bee larva; dead larvae often decompose into a brown, gooey substance. New research suggests certain analogs to a molecule called indole may be useful in blocking the bacteria’s germination.

AFB, is caused by the Paenibacillus larvae bacterium, a difficult-to-control and highly destructive pathogen found worldwide. In a study published last week in the open-access Journal of Insect Science, Israel Alvarado, Ph.D., and colleagues at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV), explore whether blocking the germination of P. larvae spores is an effective way to treat this infection.
One of the primary reasons P. larvae is so difficult to control is the bacterium’s ability to become dormant and form a spore by developing a thicker, protective cell wall that allows it to withstand extreme environmental conditions. P. larvae spores can remain in a dormant state for up to 70 years before “germinating,” or becoming active and infectious again. Spores are resistant to high temperatures, dry conditions, many harsh chemicals and treatment with antibiotics. They only germinate when they find themselves in the gut of a honey bee (Apis mellifera) larva. Upon germination, P. larvae begins reproducing and kills the larva in a few days.
But what if you could prevent P. larvae spores from germinating? If you could identify the event or factor that triggers germination and block it, you could prevent infection. Alvarado and other researchers in the lab of Ernesto Abel-Santos, Ph.D., had used this approach to prevent the germination of other bacteria including Clostridium difficile, which causes a debilitating and difficult-to-control gastrointestinal infection in humans.
Abel-Santos got the idea to try this approach on P. larvae during a bout of insomnia. “I was watching TV at 3 a.m. when I came across a documentary about the problems facing honey bees. One of the most dramatic things they showed was the burning of colonies contaminated with AFB. Next day, I called Professor Michelle Elekonich, an expert in honey bees at UNLV, and started throwing ideas around.”
Previous research on bacterial spores had shown that germination is triggered when specific molecules, called “agonists,” bind to a special receptor molecule on the cell membrane that surrounds the spore. The agonist acts like a key sliding into a lock, causing the lock to turn, and allowing the door to open, or in this case allowing the spore to germinate. One way to prevent this is to use an “antagonist,” a molecule that binds to the receptor but does not trigger germination. An antagonist is like the wrong key for the lock. You may be able to insert it into the keyhole, but it doesn’t turn the lock. Then, it gets stuck in the lock so that you can’t pull it out and use the correct key, or agonist. Now you cannot open the door or, in this case, germinate.

Research in the Abel-Santos lab showed that the molecules indole and phenol act as weak antagonists for P. larvae‘s germination receptor. In the research reported in Journal of Insect Science, the researchers tested a variety of indole and phenol analogs (molecules very similar, but not identical, in structure to indole and phenol) in the hope of finding a stronger antagonist. Their tests determined that 5-chloroindole was an effective antagonist. This compound was not toxic to the bee larva, but it inhibited P. larvae spore germination and bacterial proliferation in vitro. When bee larvae were fed a diet containing 5-chloroindole, they were better able to survive exposure to P. larvae spores.
Alvarado and his colleagues’ work has shown that 5-chloroindole could prove an effective treatment to prevent AFB in honey bee colonies. An alternative to the antibiotics currently used is needed because these drugs can harm beneficial bacteria in bee larvae guts. In addition, some strains of P. larvae are evolving resistance to antibiotic drugs.
Still, much works needs to be done before beekeepers can start using 5-chloroindole. A practical method to get 5-chloroindole to the larvae must be developed—for instance, as a food supplement for the colony. In addition, researchers must determine how long 5-chloroindole persists in the wax and honey stored by a treated colony. Nevertheless, it is a promising development in the battle against AFB. If the researchers find continued success, beekeepers may soon be armed with a more effective, less drastic treatment for AFB, and fewer bee hives will be sent to the burn pile.
From Journal of Insect Science, reprinted at 
http://www.beeculture.com/catch-buzz-5-chloroindole-effective-antagonist-not-toxic-bee-larva-inhibited-p-larvae-spore-germination-bacterial-proliferation-vitro

Tuesday, November 7, 2017

Board member elections @ Nov. meeting

November 14, 2017   6:00 pm

Open to the public.  Come and learn about Bees, beekeeping, plant pollination, honey harvesting tips or starting your own hive.   Pupu potluck starts at 6:00 PM followed by a brief business meeting at 6:30 PM.

Nov. 2017 topic:  Association board member elections.
Announce the Winners of the Hawaii Honey Challenge.

2017 Hawaiian Honey Challenge Winners

Big Island Beekeepers Association

2017 Hawaiian Honey Challenge Winners

Formal Judging:                                               

Light Honey Category

1st place                       Larry Reiss, Parsantha Apiary, Kurtistown
2nd place                     Midori Muranaka, Kula Wai Apiary, Hilo
3rd place                     Eli Isele, Mayes Apiaries LLC, Hilo

Medium Honey Category

1st place                       Ned Burns, Alii Bee Company, Captain Cook
2nd place                     Devin Megallanes, Kurtistown
3rd place                     Carey Yost & Jim Klyman, Jim & Carey’s Happy Bees, Kea’au

Dark Honey Category

1st place                       Cassandra Pensa, Bomana, Pahoa
2nd place                     John Pascual, Hawaii Guerrilla Apiaries, Mountain View
3rd place                     Michael & Kelly McCoy, Makawao

Solid Honey Category

1st place                       Erik Belcher, Aina Meli, Hilo
2nd place                     Patrick Weder, Lotus Buddhist Monastery, Mountain View 
3rd place                     Ron Hanson, The Honey Bee Company, Hilo

Comb Category

1st place                       Devin Magallanes, Island Princess, Kurtistown
2nd place                     Ron Hanson, The Honey Bee Company, Hilo
3rd place                     Cassandra Pensa, Bomana, Pahoa



People’s Choice:

Light Honey Category

1st place                       Callie Matulonis, Lava Bees, Pahoa
2nd place                     Ron Hanson, The Honey Bee Company, Hilo
3rd place                     Brittany Anderson, Hilo
                                    Elaine Partlow, Tropical Gold Honey, Pahoa
                                    Erik Belcher, Aina Meli, Hilo

Medium Honey Category

1st place                       Jim & Linda Wakefield, Puna Bear Honey, Pahoa
2nd place (tie)             Georgia Putman, Polestar Gardens, Pahoa
                                    Larry Reiss, Parsantha Apiary, Kurtistown
                                    Erik Belcher, Aina Meli, Hilo
3rd place                     Carey Yost & Jim Klyman, Jim & Carey’s Happy Bees, Kea’au

Dark Honey Category

1st place                       John Pascual, Hawaii Guerrilla Apiaries, Mountain View
2nd place                     Jim & Linda Wakefield, Puna Bear Honey, Pahoa
3rd place                     Michael & Kelly McCoy, Makawao

Solid Honey Category

1st place                       John Pascual, Hawaii Guerrilla Apiaries, Mountain View
2nd place                     Patrick Weder, Lotus Buddhist Monastery, Mountain View
3rd place                     Erik Belcher, Aina Meli, Hilo

Comb Category

1st place                       Devin Magallanes, Island Princess, Kurtistown
2nd place                     Venessa Houle, Kea’au
                                    John Pascual, Hawaii Guerrilla Apiaries, Mountain View
                                    Ron Hanson, The Honey Bee Company, Hilo

3rd place                     Erik Belcher, Aina Meli, Hilo 

Wednesday, October 4, 2017

BIBA monthly meeting, Tue October 10, 2017

Where: Kamana Senior Center,  124 Kamana St.   Hilo  HI
When: Tue October 10, 2017
Time: 6:00 pm
Details:
Open to the public.  Come and learn about Bees, beekeeping, pollination and
how important bees are to food production and survival of our planet.   Pupu
potluck starts at 6:00 PM followed by a brief business meeting at 6:30 PM.
There is usually a bee related presentation.
Oct. 2017 topic:  Open discussion about the BIBA Honey Challenge event this month.

Contacts Name: Jim Klyman
Contacts email: bigislandbeekeepers@gmail.com Contacts Ph. No.: 805-339-BIBA (2422)

Sunday, September 17, 2017

Selecting Plants for Pollinators

A Regional Guide for Farmers, Land Managers, and Gardeners

By adding plants to your landscape that provide food and shelter for pollinators throughout their active seasons and by adopting pollinator friendly landscape practices, you can make a difference to both the pollinators and the people that rely on them.

Why support pollinators?
Animal pollinators are needed for the reproduction of 90% of flowering plants and one third of human food crops. Each of us depends on these industrious pollinators to provide us with the wide range of foods we eat. In addition, pollinators are part of the intricate web that supports the biological diversity in natural ecosystems that helps sustain our quality of life.
Abundant and healthy populations of pollinators can improve fruit set and quality, and increase fruit size. In farming situations this increases production per acre. In the wild, biodiversity increases and wildlife food sources increase. 
Macadamia nuts, avocados, watermelon, guava, and coffee are some of the crops that rely on honey bees and native bees for pollination.

Here is the link to the PDF document that these excerpts were taken from.  It also has a fairly extensive list of plants that various pollinators prefer.

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Thursday, September 14, 2017

Mite-A-Thon Banner Image 2
 
IT'S MITE-A-THON WEEK!
Get Out and Get Testing!

Mitecheck map 2


Report your data at WWW.MITECHECK.COM!

Participants will monitor the level of mites (number of mites per 100 bees) using a standardized protocol utilizing two common methods of assessment (powdered sugar roll or alcohol wash) and then enter data, including location, total number of hives, number of hives tested, local habitat, and the number of varroa mites counted from each hive. The published information will not identify individual participants.
IMG_1764
 
Get more information at www.pollinator.org/miteathon!
Thank you,

The Mite-A-Thon Partners
Pollinator.90.tallBee Informed PartnershipCanadian Honey Council Logo  AHPA Logo 2 ABF_logo_cmyk
Michigan State University LogoUMN Bee Lab Bee Squad logo U MD logo 2 HBHC Logo-Revised jpg   USDA


CA Almond Board logoVValmontGold  Project Apis m Logo
 

Tuesday, August 29, 2017

BIBA Monthly meeting 9/12/2017 @ 6:00 PM

Kamana Senior Center,   124 Kamana St.  Hilo,  HI  

This month’s Big Island Beekeepers Association meeting will be:  Inspecting your hive for Varroa mites, and reporting your findings for the First Annual  MITE-A-THON project.
                                                                                                                                                                                                     
We will review the two standardized sampling protocols (alcohol wash, and powdered sugar roll) for counting mites.    A quick run down of the Mite-a-Thon data project should include:                                                                
Number of mites per 100 bees (% of hive infestation), Hive location, total number of hives, number of hives   tested, local habitat, and total number of Varroa counted from each hive.  The published information will not identify any individual participants. 

Jim K.  Media Person
Contact:  bigislandbeekeepers@gmail.com  or voice mail  805 399-2422