Wednesday, November 15, 2017

News from the world of beekeeping

News from the world of beekeeping - Western Apicultural Society Journal 

5-CHLOROINDOLE ANTAGONIST for (AFB) P. LARVAE SPORE GERMINATION AND BACTERIAL PROLIFERATION. 
From (Entomology Today)  By Meredith Swett Walker

American foulbrood (AFB) is a bacterial disease afflicting honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies. The Paenibacillus larvae bacterium germinates in the gut of a honey bee larva; dead larvae often decompose into a brown, gooey substance. New research suggests certain analogs to a molecule called indole may be useful in blocking the bacteria’s germination.

AFB, is caused by the Paenibacillus larvae bacterium, a difficult-to-control and highly destructive pathogen found worldwide. In a study published last week in the open-access Journal of Insect Science, Israel Alvarado, Ph.D., and colleagues at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV), explore whether blocking the germination of P. larvae spores is an effective way to treat this infection.
One of the primary reasons P. larvae is so difficult to control is the bacterium’s ability to become dormant and form a spore by developing a thicker, protective cell wall that allows it to withstand extreme environmental conditions. P. larvae spores can remain in a dormant state for up to 70 years before “germinating,” or becoming active and infectious again. Spores are resistant to high temperatures, dry conditions, many harsh chemicals and treatment with antibiotics. They only germinate when they find themselves in the gut of a honey bee (Apis mellifera) larva. Upon germination, P. larvae begins reproducing and kills the larva in a few days.
But what if you could prevent P. larvae spores from germinating? If you could identify the event or factor that triggers germination and block it, you could prevent infection. Alvarado and other researchers in the lab of Ernesto Abel-Santos, Ph.D., had used this approach to prevent the germination of other bacteria including Clostridium difficile, which causes a debilitating and difficult-to-control gastrointestinal infection in humans.
Abel-Santos got the idea to try this approach on P. larvae during a bout of insomnia. “I was watching TV at 3 a.m. when I came across a documentary about the problems facing honey bees. One of the most dramatic things they showed was the burning of colonies contaminated with AFB. Next day, I called Professor Michelle Elekonich, an expert in honey bees at UNLV, and started throwing ideas around.”
Previous research on bacterial spores had shown that germination is triggered when specific molecules, called “agonists,” bind to a special receptor molecule on the cell membrane that surrounds the spore. The agonist acts like a key sliding into a lock, causing the lock to turn, and allowing the door to open, or in this case allowing the spore to germinate. One way to prevent this is to use an “antagonist,” a molecule that binds to the receptor but does not trigger germination. An antagonist is like the wrong key for the lock. You may be able to insert it into the keyhole, but it doesn’t turn the lock. Then, it gets stuck in the lock so that you can’t pull it out and use the correct key, or agonist. Now you cannot open the door or, in this case, germinate.

Research in the Abel-Santos lab showed that the molecules indole and phenol act as weak antagonists for P. larvae‘s germination receptor. In the research reported in Journal of Insect Science, the researchers tested a variety of indole and phenol analogs (molecules very similar, but not identical, in structure to indole and phenol) in the hope of finding a stronger antagonist. Their tests determined that 5-chloroindole was an effective antagonist. This compound was not toxic to the bee larva, but it inhibited P. larvae spore germination and bacterial proliferation in vitro. When bee larvae were fed a diet containing 5-chloroindole, they were better able to survive exposure to P. larvae spores.
Alvarado and his colleagues’ work has shown that 5-chloroindole could prove an effective treatment to prevent AFB in honey bee colonies. An alternative to the antibiotics currently used is needed because these drugs can harm beneficial bacteria in bee larvae guts. In addition, some strains of P. larvae are evolving resistance to antibiotic drugs.
Still, much works needs to be done before beekeepers can start using 5-chloroindole. A practical method to get 5-chloroindole to the larvae must be developed—for instance, as a food supplement for the colony. In addition, researchers must determine how long 5-chloroindole persists in the wax and honey stored by a treated colony. Nevertheless, it is a promising development in the battle against AFB. If the researchers find continued success, beekeepers may soon be armed with a more effective, less drastic treatment for AFB, and fewer bee hives will be sent to the burn pile.
From Journal of Insect Science, reprinted at 
http://www.beeculture.com/catch-buzz-5-chloroindole-effective-antagonist-not-toxic-bee-larva-inhibited-p-larvae-spore-germination-bacterial-proliferation-vitro

Tuesday, November 7, 2017

Board member elections @ Nov. meeting

November 14, 2017   6:00 pm

Open to the public.  Come and learn about Bees, beekeeping, plant pollination, honey harvesting tips or starting your own hive.   Pupu potluck starts at 6:00 PM followed by a brief business meeting at 6:30 PM.

Nov. 2017 topic:  Association board member elections.
Announce the Winners of the Hawaii Honey Challenge.

2017 Hawaiian Honey Challenge Winners

Big Island Beekeepers Association

2017 Hawaiian Honey Challenge Winners

Formal Judging:                                               

Light Honey Category

1st place                       Larry Reiss, Parsantha Apiary, Kurtistown
2nd place                     Midori Muranaka, Kula Wai Apiary, Hilo
3rd place                     Eli Isele, Mayes Apiaries LLC, Hilo

Medium Honey Category

1st place                       Ned Burns, Alii Bee Company, Captain Cook
2nd place                     Devin Megallanes, Kurtistown
3rd place                     Carey Yost & Jim Klyman, Jim & Carey’s Happy Bees, Kea’au

Dark Honey Category

1st place                       Cassandra Pensa, Bomana, Pahoa
2nd place                     John Pascual, Hawaii Guerrilla Apiaries, Mountain View
3rd place                     Michael & Kelly McCoy, Makawao

Solid Honey Category

1st place                       Erik Belcher, Aina Meli, Hilo
2nd place                     Patrick Weder, Lotus Buddhist Monastery, Mountain View 
3rd place                     Ron Hanson, The Honey Bee Company, Hilo

Comb Category

1st place                       Devin Magallanes, Island Princess, Kurtistown
2nd place                     Ron Hanson, The Honey Bee Company, Hilo
3rd place                     Cassandra Pensa, Bomana, Pahoa



People’s Choice:

Light Honey Category

1st place                       Callie Matulonis, Lava Bees, Pahoa
2nd place                     Ron Hanson, The Honey Bee Company, Hilo
3rd place                     Brittany Anderson, Hilo
                                    Elaine Partlow, Tropical Gold Honey, Pahoa
                                    Erik Belcher, Aina Meli, Hilo

Medium Honey Category

1st place                       Jim & Linda Wakefield, Puna Bear Honey, Pahoa
2nd place (tie)             Georgia Putman, Polestar Gardens, Pahoa
                                    Larry Reiss, Parsantha Apiary, Kurtistown
                                    Erik Belcher, Aina Meli, Hilo
3rd place                     Carey Yost & Jim Klyman, Jim & Carey’s Happy Bees, Kea’au

Dark Honey Category

1st place                       John Pascual, Hawaii Guerrilla Apiaries, Mountain View
2nd place                     Jim & Linda Wakefield, Puna Bear Honey, Pahoa
3rd place                     Michael & Kelly McCoy, Makawao

Solid Honey Category

1st place                       John Pascual, Hawaii Guerrilla Apiaries, Mountain View
2nd place                     Patrick Weder, Lotus Buddhist Monastery, Mountain View
3rd place                     Erik Belcher, Aina Meli, Hilo

Comb Category

1st place                       Devin Magallanes, Island Princess, Kurtistown
2nd place                     Venessa Houle, Kea’au
                                    John Pascual, Hawaii Guerrilla Apiaries, Mountain View
                                    Ron Hanson, The Honey Bee Company, Hilo

3rd place                     Erik Belcher, Aina Meli, Hilo